Overview of Stocks and the Stock Market

provide an ownership stake in a company. They provide access to company
earnings based on its future performance. Companies can pay dividends to their
stockholders to return profits to the owners, or they could reinvest profits
into the firm to lay the foundation for better performance and even larger
dividends to owners in the future.

The stock
price can be driven up when investors anticipate stronger future performance
than previously anticipated, and this can serve as a source of capital gains
for stocks owners who sell shares. However, there are no contractual
protections to receive either capital gains or dividends. In the ownership
structure, stockholders are residual claimants, meaning that their rights to
receive firm earnings or assets fall behind most other claimants like bond
holders or lenders. Companies could underperform relative to expectations, and
the stock price could decrease in anticipation of a reduced ability for the
company to pay dividends in the future. The returns from a stock over a
specified holding period are the dividend payments it makes plus any capital
gains or capital losses. For owners having to sell shares after a price
decline, stocks could underperform relative to bonds.

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The value of
a stock can be estimated as the present value of its anticipated future
dividend payments. This relates to our bond pricing discussion, as bonds can be
priced as the present value of their future cash flows. Except that, again,
there are no promises supporting anticipated dividends. Projections of company
performance can change over time, leading to fluctuations in stock prices. With
this price volatility, funding retirement expenses by selling stocks can be
risky as stock prices may be in decline at the time they need to be sold,
requiring more shares to be sold to meet an expense.

Mutual funds
and exchange-traded funds (ETFs) provide a simple way for household investors
to diversify across a broad range of company stocks. These same investment
vehicles exist for bonds as well. With stocks, these investment vehicles
provide a collection of stocks that help to reduce the individual risks of
companies by diversifying across a broader range of companies. By limiting
exposure to individual companies, this also limits exposure to that company’s
specific risks. If company specific risks are independent from one another,
then this diversification leaves investors exposed to the overall systematic
market risk for the collection of stock holdings, while diversifying away from
the company-specific risks so that overall volatility is less.

Our analysis
treats stock and bond investments in terms of overall index returns, which
implies that the funds in question are index funds. Index funds are passively
managed holdings of the components in a market index, and they are generally
offered with lower expenses than mutual funds driven by active management
decisions about which companies to hold. Actively managed funds attempt to
outperform the overall market either by identifying and selecting mispriced
securities or by forecasting broad market trends.

managed funds may charge higher fees in part to pay investment managers and
researchers to select securities they believe will outperform the overall
market index. Whether such active management can provide increased returns net
of the investment management fees and taxes, after accounting for the fund’s
risk relative to the overall market, is a subject of continued debate.
Generally, though, the conclusion of academic research is that there is no
reason to believe than an actively managed fund will outperform an index fund
when considered net of investment fees, taxes, and risk. Investment fees tend
to be higher for active funds to compensate a larger team of individuals
working to select stocks, and active funds tend to generate high taxes through
their turnover of investments that passes capital gains to the fund owners on
an ongoing basis even if shares are not sold.

In a market
equilibrium, higher return investments must be viewed as riskier in terms of
there being greater volatility in the returns. If higher returning investments
were not viewed as riskier, demand would increase and the price would be pushed
up immediately, reducing the potential returns for subsequent owners.

This is the
basis for the efficient market theory, which says that stock prices incorporate
all of the known information regarding market performance. New information
about a stock is processed quickly through price adjustments. Good news,
reflecting better future performance prospects, will lead those with the
information to purchase the stock immediately, driving its price up, and vice
versa. Current prices reflect the aggregate expectations of all market
participants. An implication of this is that stock price movements should
follow a random walk as new information, either good or bad, will arrive in a
random and unpredictable manner. An implication of stock prices quickly
incorporating information from all market participants into their prices is
that it is not feasible to systematically beat the market through active
decision-making. A lower cost passive strategy based on index funds capturing
the broad-based returns for different asset classes can capture the overall
market returns in the least costly and most tax efficient manner when market
prices behave efficiently.

strategies can be supported with less fees because they are not paying
analysts, and the reduced turnover of holdings helps to manage transaction
costs and creates greater tax efficiency by avoiding the realization of capital
gains. Regarding taxes, index funds can be more efficient because they have
less turnover for the assets held, which in turn can help reduce the creation
of short-term capital gains that are taxed at income tax rates. At the very
least, actively managed funds introduce another type of risk called tracking
risk, which relates to how the returns might vary from the index returns over
time. Because our analyses are based on assumptions for market indices, it is
easier to think about our investments as index funds rather than actively
managed funds.

This is an excerpt from Wade Pfau’s book, Safety-First Retirement Planning: An Integrated Approach for a Worry-Free Retirement. (The Retirement Researcher’s Guide Series), available now on Amazon.


Originally posted at https://retirementresearcher.com/overview-of-stocks-and-the-stock-market/

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